365bet娱乐场手机版告诉您淀粉消化率 - 常见问题-365bet体育在线

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365bet娱乐场手机版告诉您淀粉消化率

365bet娱乐场手机版告诉您淀粉消化率

来源网址:http://www.aiyouzou.com 2019-10-26 10:32:17    

  淀粉是现代奶牛场的传奇。故事始于一片玉米地,阳光将水和二氧化碳转化为糖,糖以淀粉的形式储存在谷物中。奶牛,作为反刍动物,有独特的能力使用纤维素(纤维)和淀粉(谷物)作为能源。

  Starch is the legend of modern dairy. The story begins with a cornfield where sunlight transforms water and carbon dioxide into sugar, which is stored in grains in the form of starch. Cows, as ruminants, have a unique ability to use cellulose (fiber) and starch (grain) as energy sources.
  奶农面临的挑战是如何在限度地提高饮食中的能量,同时将淀粉或谷物的成本降至。为了降低淀粉的成本,提高淀粉的消化率是非常重要的。
  The challenge for dairy farmers is to maximize energy in their diets while minimizing the cost of starch or grain. In order to reduce the cost of starch, it is very important to improve the digestibility of starch.
  玉米和牛饲料中淀粉的研究并不新鲜,但更近引进的“粉状”青贮玉米杂交品种引起了市场混乱。当有人声称含有“粉末状”淀粉粒的玉米杂交种具有更高的淀粉消化率时,应该提出哪些正确的问题?事实上,这是在试图解决一个根本不存在的问题吗?
  Starch research in corn and cattle feed is not new, but the recently introduced "powdery" silage maize hybrid has caused market confusion. When someone claims that corn hybrids with "powdered" starch grains have higher starch digestibility, what right questions should be raised? In fact, is this trying to solve a problem that does not exist at all?
  1. 粉末状的玉米粒和硬淀粉有什么区别?
  1. What's the difference between powdered corn and hard starch?
  当种子公司谈论粉末状的淀粉杂交种(也被称为软杂交种)时,他们指的是在玉米粒中发现的白色淀粉颗粒的数量。玻璃状淀粉(又称硬淀粉)是一种存在于成熟玉米粒外缘的致密黄色淀粉粒。当玉米籽粒水分含量低于20% ~ 25%时(黑色层后),玻璃状淀粉更加突出。
  When seed companies talk about powdered starch hybrids (also known as soft hybrids), they refer to the number of white starch grains found in corn kernels. Glassy starch (also known as hard starch) is a kind of dense yellow starch grain existing in the outer edge of mature corn grain. When the moisture content of corn grain is lower than 20% - 25% (after the black layer), the glassy starch is more prominent.
玉米淀粉颗粒
  在粉末状和玻璃状的玉米粒中,淀粉颗粒被蛋白质(麦胶蛋白或玉米醇溶蛋白)包围。玻璃状区域有更多的玉米醇溶蛋白,并通过这些玉米醇溶蛋白显示出更强的粘附到淀粉。高玻璃状的玉米杂交品种的一个例子是爆米花。此外,许多北欧玉米杂交品种是硬型,含有更多的玻璃淀粉。大多数北美玉米杂交种都是用粉状淀粉含量高的软基因型培育的。
  In powdered and glassy corn grains, starch grains are surrounded by proteins (gliadin or zein). There are more zein in the glassy region, and through these zein, it shows stronger adhesion to starch. An example of a high glassy corn hybrid is popcorn. In addition, many northern European maize hybrids are hard type and contain more glass starch. Most Maize Hybrids in North America were bred with soft genotypes with high starch content.
  2. 牛的淀粉在哪里消化?
  2. Where is the starch digested?
  许多关于高淀粉消化率杂交种的说法强调了增加瘤胃微生物数量的重要性。这很重要,但瘤胃消化率只是其中一部分。淀粉消化率更多地取决于以下问题的答案:消化道(瘤胃+小肠+大肠)消化了多少淀粉?种子基因与种子加工和储存管理有多大关系?
  Many claims about hybrids with high starch digestibility emphasize the importance of increasing the number of rumen microbes. This is important, but Rumen Digestibility is only part of it. Starch digestibility depends more on the answer to the following questions: how much starch is digested in the digestive tract (rumen + small intestine + large intestine), and how much is seed gene related to seed processing and storage management?
  粪便中淀粉的含量在整个消化道中更容易测定。研究表明,当青贮、高水分玉米或干玉米种子经过适当处理后,泌乳奶牛整个消化道的淀粉消化率超过95%。
  The content of starch in feces is easier to measure in the whole digestive tract. The results showed that when silage, high moisture corn or dry corn seeds were properly treated, the starch digestibility of the whole digestive tract of lactating dairy cows was over 95%.
  营养学家在管理良好的畜群中测量粪便中的淀粉含量不到2%到3%。如果牛吃的玉米青贮饲料和谷物中98%到99%的淀粉都被消化了,那么问题来了:我们要解决什么?
  Nutritionists measure less than 2% to 3% of starch in faeces from well managed herds. If 98% to 99% of the starch in corn silage and grains eaten by cattle is digested, then the question is: what are we going to solve?
  虽然整个消化道的消化能力是更重要的,它也有助于了解整个奶牛消化淀粉的平衡。瘤胃中淀粉的消化有利于培养更多的瘤胃微生物,从而为奶牛提供蛋白质来源。
  Although the digestive capacity of the whole digestive tract is the most important, it also helps to understand the balance of digestive starch of the whole cow. The digestion of starch in rumen is conducive to the cultivation of more rumen microorganisms, so as to provide protein sources for dairy cows.
  然而,瘤胃中过多的淀粉消化会导致酸中毒,也会减少奶牛的食物摄入量和牛奶成分。瘤胃淀粉(以葡萄糖的形式被肠道吸收)产生的能量比瘤胃消化的淀粉多20%。
  However, too much starch digestion in the rumen can lead to acidosis and reduce the food intake and milk composition of dairy cows. Rumen starch (absorbed by the gut in the form of glucose) produces 20% more energy than rumen digested starch.
  3.玉米淀粉的消化率是否存在遗传差异?
  3. Is there genetic difference in the digestibility of corn starch?
  研究表明,当玉米籽粒含水量大于25%(青贮玉米或高水分玉米的典型含水量)时,杂交种粉状淀粉的含量差异很小。
  The results showed that when the moisture content of corn grain was more than 25% (typical moisture content of silage corn or high moisture corn), there was little difference in the starch content of hybrid.
  在收获过程中,当玉米籽粒水分含量低于20%-25%时,杂交品种间的玻态淀粉含量可能存在差异。即使是这些差异也可能很小,并且每年都因生长条件的不同而有所不同。
  In the harvest process, when the moisture content of corn grain is lower than 20% - 25%, there may be differences in the content of glassy starch among the hybrid varieties. Even these differences can be small and vary from year to year depending on the growing conditions.
  4. 什么可以提高淀粉的消化率?
  4. What can improve the digestibility of starch?
  研究表明,影响玉米青贮、高水分玉米和干玉米淀粉消化率的主要因素有:
  The results showed that the main factors affecting the digestibility of corn silage, high moisture corn and dry corn starch were as follows:
  玉米粒的粒度-主要受玉米粒加工或碾磨的影响。
  Grain size of corn - mainly affected by corn processing or milling.
  发酵时间-淀粉在筒仓中的消化率在稳定前约6个月增加。
  Fermentation time - the digestibility of starch in silo increased about 6 months before stabilization.
  (3)玉米籽粒成熟或水分含量(1/2乳线和黑色层)的收获-影响玻化淀粉的发育程度。
  (3) harvest of corn grain maturity or moisture content (1 / 2 milk line and black layer) - influence the development of vitrified starch.
  (4)玉米的种植环境,包括与天气有关的因素和氮肥。
  (4) corn planting environment, including weather related factors and nitrogen fertilizer.
  管理玉米淀粉消化率更重要的因素是在田间收获过程中不断监测玉米的籽粒大小。尽管市场趋向于“粉状”淀粉质玉米杂交品种,但将基因选择集中在产量和农业经济上是更有利的。
  The most important factor to manage the starch digestibility of maize is to constantly monitor the grain size of Maize during the field harvest. Although the market tends to be "powdery" starch maize hybrids, it is most advantageous to concentrate gene selection on Yield and agricultural economy.
  以上是玉米淀粉颗粒厂家为大家介绍的相关内容,想要了解更多内容,欢迎访问网站:http://www.aiyouzou.comThe above is the relevant content introduced by corn starch granule manufacturers. To learn more, please visit the website: http://www.aiyouzou.com